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The World This Week 2017-09-30:03:30.00
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  • Hello, I'm Jill the gibbering welcome to the world.

  • This week, the programme that tells you how the world has changed in the past seven days, this was the week when Iraqi Kurds voted for independence, we I came, Oh, it's tonight.

  • To be a defendant, despite fury in Baghdad and elsewhere beautician Laura Dunn air space and ground options are all on the table, all options are on the table.

  • Right now, and being discussed, the week when Angela Merkel lost independence in government, when Saudi women won some Independents getting hold of the car keys.

  • Turn and the t. v. decided Chano and there it was, and I couldn't believe it, they started laughing in jumping in the screaming and I was so excited.

  • It's great victory.

  • I'm a lock at the curse.

  • Or is it a blessing of Bali's angry volcano.

  • But first, this week, Kurds in northern Iraq voted in a referendum on independence.

  • The result, I've got the webbing is near enough, the Saint force either an overwhelming yes, it was only an advisory referendum, but it sparked fury in Baghdad, which opposes any such move and sent shockwaves through Turkey, Syria and Iran neighbours with their own sometimes restive Kurdish minorities, which might be inspired to do something similar, the United States disapprove to complaining that the vote weaken the focus on battling so called Islamic state for several long years, it seemed that The Iraqi Kurds were the only one scoring successes against, yes, as the Iraqi army crumbled and i. s. one territory across the region, but these days, ayah seems close to defeat and national armies are doing rather better, so perhaps there was just this one quite small window in which a faute might be Harold, I've been speaking to a diplomatic correspondent Jonathan Marcus and first achieve your goal of the B.B.C. is Persian service, an Iranian curd himself, who's just back from the Iraqi Kurdish city of our bill party's still going on.

  • You can't secretly slugs and banners for you, just sort of yester independence flying everywhere, or many people, this is a historical moment, and they feel events, Wally will lead you like he could've stuck to an independent state, but in the same time.

  • Many are worried what's going on, particle with the richer comes from Baghdad, which Prime Minister in by these show no interest in compromising because said, we should go back to the negotiation table and resolve our differences, but seems to me, actually, the tension is rising hour by hour, and many people are worried about their future.

  • Because, and the neighbouring counties also tricked into Shad down a, it's because a lot of grits and sue are coming from those two neighbouring countries, Ivan and taking in the same time, I talk to many people is really what a to have this for under many c. is what we have Seen worse then this me a scene last graves chemical attack.

  • I saw sense of resilience, and even a mound or had any people, it feels, because I'd gearing up for the water to come, Jonathan we were hearing a bit, they're about some of the anxieties about how realistic.

  • This actually is.

  • We're already looking at air links being cut talk about possible economic blockade.

  • How far will their neighbours go, do you think, first of all, I should say that I think one of the factors that actually pushed for the very high turnout and the very, very large, yes, vote was the almost universal opposition to the referendum from outside.

  • Even the United States and Iran were on very much the same page.

  • So what can we do about, we've seen in the initial response from Iran.

  • At the request of the Iraq is to cut off air links to the two main regional airports in Iraqi Kurd a star to be seen military exercises by the Turks and some Iraqi troops as well, so a bit of sabre rattling.

  • Lots of strong rhetoric, I think the crucial thing is, obviously, on the n. economic front, where are clearly the overwhelming bulk of Iraqi could he starves exports are oil that goes in a pipeline into Turkey and onwards.

  • And, of course, the revenues from that oil, to a large extent, are spent in Turkish, Kurdish areas goes to Turkish construction companies who are very active in Iraqi Kurdistan, art, and so on.

  • So it's a kind of cutting off your nose to spite your face, it's not entirely clear how far each of the individual actors, Turkey, Iraq and Iran are prepared to go the difficulty, of course, is that there are potent local political factors as well.

  • I mean, for one example, there are parliamentary elections, I think, in Iraq, early next year, and clearly the Iraqi leadership, Sir ability to handle this issue to be tough, that is going to be an important factor there, so a balance, I think he's gonna have to be struck, and I think that's why outside action, particularly by the Americans who have not been very much involved in this fundamentally that kind of mediating role between key allies, it's going to be very important.

  • I went to one of the crossing border between Iraqi printer Stan antiquey actually brain credit, which is the trait between two countries is twelve billion dollars a year, summer for a fish on privately told me, even some of the families of the leadership in Turkey have personal and listing them like he could, the sun oil and does this was before did a front on it, so they don't believe tricki would actually turn away from this massive economic benefit.

  • They get front you like, you could have this done and antiquity kerbs cope if they did, that's the other side of it.

  • Isn't it definitely if they close the border, I think, because we'll have a massive problem.

  • It's not just tricky way that you want around five billion dollar trade between you like, you could have Simon, he won, and there is a lot of goods coming from, I just say that the border, but what I'm saying is, and the people as Janet and actually said that in the sun, and you argue in Turkish, Kurdish region.

  • They are relying on trade with you Archie could have sandy's creating so many jobs Muller tell places which already massive opposition to central government.

  • If, for example, if Iran closed the border.

  • If Iran do now treating you like, you could have this done, he will be dozens of people, and you won, you could've sent who are lining up to get lightly with Xander trade with you like, you could these would have had a lot of people go on unemployment and create more problem in that region, for example, when was celebration in streets of a deal and silly money, I didn't made you could've citizen, like, you can say that celebration, didn't stop at the border.

  • We saw footage is pictures front major krish cities, they were so many people, people pulled in this street displayed the security forces present in the street, h. hand, take the national anthem of the credits.

  • That's the greatest fear, isn't it.

  • Have they what this is going to be contagious exactly what it says, what is happening in Iraq, he Could've son, it doesn't simply, it's tops in the border, it could easily spill over to tricki, and I think that's absolutely right.

  • If you look across the region.

  • Bad as things are at the moment, the fear of courses that hip borders collapse if there were to be a sort of Kurdish entity that encouraged Kurds elsewhere in the region, to seek independence that would set a hold ball rolling that could lead to even greater fragmentation, the Kurds, in a sense, you Noah this extraordinary paradox.

  • On the one hand, they're ethnic group that many people believe, er should justifiably, have some kind of state, but also because of their positioning across so many existing international borders in the region are kind of time bomb waiting to happen, and that is why not just the local actors, the Turks, the Iranians the Syrians countries where there are Kurdish minorities.

  • Already, just like Iraq, but that is why so much else of the international Community, United States, the main players on the Security Council, the key European countries, and so on, have all been so reticent about this referendum.

  • Now, of course, in the wake of the rise of so called Islamic state fighting in Iraq, the fragmentation in Syria, and so on.

  • So the whole issue borders, and so on, has once again come back onto the agenda.

  • That's not the issue, of course, isn't it.

  • The Holy sure Islamic state in the fact that this is now Increasingly a distraction from the issue.

  • Bottom, the Americans, of course, crucially, their central issue in Iraq is that wound it leader, get in Syria is the war against so called Islamic state.

  • They don't want to see anything that would distract from it.

  • And, of course, a Kurdish fighters in various forms have been amongst the most effective of the local forces combating a so called Islamic state and doing are finally, where do you think this is going to end.

  • Well, obviously, we don't see any sign yet from either side to back down trumpet position.

  • We don't know whether these are war for public opinion by Prime Minister anybody to say, I'm a stronger leader said that for dark coming election next year, or have we definitely what I'm hearing from, because they are not willing to back most definitely if international Community particle American dawn stiff and mediate with them and ask them to go back to negotiation tell to resolve did have problems, we will see more attention, and I think his ingredients for a full blown conflict.

  • That's a very dangerous, they should this moment, Giancarlo and Jonathan Marcus.

  • It was a great satire, but it's no longer true in Saudi Arabia.

  • Women are celebrating because they finally are getting the right to drive goodbye chauffeurs Hello car keys, and all the freedom that goes with that, although it's not such great news for the hundreds of thousands of foreigners employed as drivers in Saudi Arabia, and for their families.

  • In Asia, it's a later sign of how their dynamic young Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is dragging the Kingdom kicking and screaming into, if not the twenty first quite yet, at least the twentieth century, but what difference.

  • Will it really make for Saudi women when they take to the driving seat next year.

  • The B.B.C.'s hand, I'm Razzak often works in Saudi Arabia.

  • So I caught up with her in Washington, I asked first how she felt when she heard the news.

  • When I saw the news broke, and they saw it on my phone.

  • I was like, Oh my God, it is happening after years and Vicky needs of women campaigning for allowing them to drive.

  • It is actually happening.

  • I got in touch with the containers.

  • I've been interviewing over the last couple of years, and they were so happy.

  • They were over the moon actually expected.

  • If you were weaving for it.

  • For years, some of them didn't lose hope, even though with the atmosphere around them with Clary, except the conservative powers, telling them that it will never happen men expressing that they do not want their women to drive.

  • Some of them have been to reading to me and saying, we're already year deciding which car, we want to drive.

  • One of them told me, and we will take you on a cruise.

  • Next time you're in Saudi And we will have lake call drive together, Listen to music, and will you be driving that time, I hope, so I will see you by the day my there.

  • I don't know.

  • See, we still don't know the details, I wonder if women are celebrating too soon, cos all of the detail still got to be hammered out with the religious authorities do you think they might actually be restrictive when they come down to exactly who can drive.

  • It's not clear yet if it will be restrictive Emma what conditions or had their regulations for women driving will be back in a month, there will be recommendations from different ministries, from what I understood from their oil, there is equality in issuing driving licences to men and women.

  • The other interesting thing is what the Saudi Ambassador to the U.S Prince had been men said, the couple of days ago that women, well, not need a male guardian permission to issue their lighters, which is a big and significant change door how things work, free Saudi women in general, where these still need their milk idea permission to travel, to study or to get medical axis, and I've heard people say, of course, driving as a great symbol of personal freedom, no doubt about it.

  • But, actually, the real transformation would be around that issue with ending male guardianship absolutely Jill, I've been covering stories in Saudi over the last couple of years, and I met a lot of women, and many of them are so Excited about the driving with you think it's a big change, but also, I think it's only the beginning of the change, because some of them told me that the real change will be when we actually cared and, travel, study ekin get medical axis without needing the male guardian permission and just explain what a male guardianship sell you woman cannot do any of those things.

  • I mentioned, without giving the approval of their father, brother has, but now some sometimes I gather exactly, or even the sun sometimes, but at the moment, then, over the last couple of days, where they've been hearing from women, that it's only the beginning, and it's actually happening.

  • Now, what about the economics of all there, some in from your time in Saudi Arabia.

  • How much of an economic headache.

  • Has it been for women that they couldn't if Emily higher around eight hundred thousand drivers from Asia, South East Asia to drive their wives daughters around, then it caused him a lot of money and some families have to stretch their budget in order to get the driver isn't hired the drivers.

  • Now if women are allowed to drive it will make big change in their budget, and I think it will allow women to contribute more to the economy of the country.

  • Have they can actually move freely drive an hour, and then I think this is actually part of a wider plaid that was announced last year, which his Vision twenty, thirty that was announced by the Crown Prince Mohammed bits.

  • A man, he knows that in order to transform the economy of the country and steer it away, film, depending on oil Saudi needs the contribution of its women, Hammam Rutter, you're listening to the world, this week.

  • It's a programme that tells you what happened in the past seven days, and why it counts.

  • And I've got news about how you can vote for what's going to be in the final episode of a B.B.C. world service podcast series fifty things that made the modern economy, he Tim, I couldn't stick to fifty, I'm going for fifty one.

  • So what thing.

  • Should I be making an extra special podcast the credit card glass, the global positioning system, irrigation, the pencil all to spread.

  • These are all suggestions that came from a podcast listening's, and now you can vote for, which will be the fifty first made the modern economy vote online now at B.B.C. world service dot com slash fifty one things that's five one where you'll also find full terms and conditions.

  • Voting closes at twelve noon, on Friday, the sixth of October twenty seventh last week, we looked at Angela Merkel's chances of getting a fourth term, as German Chancellor.

  • Well, as we predicted.

  • She did win, but much less comfortably the most people had thought and the far right alternative for Germany party entered Parliament for the first time now, missus Merkel is Trying to pull together a workable coalition, it's happy upsy that's enough stab.

  • You think you Morgan, my intention is that we will achieve a stable government in Germany, they used to be a trademark of Germany, perhaps I'm repeating myself, but this country has a heck of a lot of future problems to solve, for dumped feeder tuppence off, and she's going to have to deal with was before turning her full attention to what the rest of the world wants from her being the most important person in the European Union, so I asked the B.B.C. is Jenny hill in Berlin, how hard it would be for her to achieve a functioning coalition, it's going to be very difficult, but at this stage in the process.

  • It's to be expected, we sing a lot, a, Rufty Tufty a lot of backwards and forwards as the party's jostle for position, missus Merkel's first hurdle is that she has to come up with some kind of unity within that C.D., you see s.

  • Union, I'm talking about.

  • The Christian Democrats sister party in Bavaria, a c. s. you led by a man called Horst say Hoffa who throughout Merkel's last four years has been a real thorn in her side, one minute pushing for an upper limit on the number of refugees coming into the country really going on the attack.

  • The next minute, making friends with missus Merkel what most commentators here expect is really not very much to Happen in terms of coalition building, because those two sister parties have to get their someone him she absolutely straight together before they can really start talks with the Greens and the F.T. p. who are, of course, expected to be the coalition partners, this is going to take a long time.

  • Most people don't think there'll be a new government to place probably until the new year, it's worth pointing out is a very long time, not to have a proper couple, and it is, but, Ouch.

  • That's not a President, it can take months and m. p., actually, I was talking to some time ago, he said.

  • The great thing about Germany, is that we have a civil service that allows the country to just tick along in your stay, such ability Jenny that than actually failed to get a functioning coalition, and it will end up with fresh elections.

  • Of course, it's a possibility, but I think no one really takes that seriously.

  • So at the moment.

  • Her only real options are to fortune Alliance with the green party in the free Democrats, not very different parties, as you can imagine, particularly when it comes to environmental policy, but the F.T. p. are really pretty keen to get back into government, they've been on the sideline.

  • For a very long time, and the green party, too, will seize the chance, I think, can we talk a bit about Europe generally.

  • I mean, there, in a sense, you're, It's been hanging on for this election.

  • In order to be able to start making progress on issues like European unity and developing the an institution, and, of course, we've got Breck it, it's all that on hold.

  • Now, as you say, possibly till the new year, partially or, although I think, let's not forget that Angela Merkel has been in Tallinn at the y. use summit, she has been holding talks with E.U. leaders about the digital future.

  • For example, and how the E.U. has to crack on with plans for that she's been on the phone to Donald trump about North Korea, where she might run into a bit of bother, I think, is on this issue of further E.U. integration, missus Merkel had hoped that Germany and France would once again release of power up the y. you ever closer Union more integration more fiscal integration, and we know that President mackerel is very keen on this eurozone budget are yours, and finance Minister missus Merkel had pledged her support for those plans that might be a little bit more difficult.

  • Now, because she's hoping that the F.T. p. this coalition partner of hers, will come on board, they do, and I do, it's, aren't they about that idea of integration at particular the pace of integration, the macro seems to want, indeed, and they actually oppose his plans for a budget and finance Minister what missus Mac was also going to face, though, is the F.T. With now scores of seats in the Bandar stag, we're going to make a lot of noise about the y. you, they don't like the euro, they don't particularly like Europe as an institution, and sure their campaign focused very much on immigration.

  • That's where the majority of people have voted for them, but at the same time, two, they are very much anti Brussels, they don't like what they see as power's been clawed away, they don't like the loss of sovereignty as they perceive it from Germany.

  • So she's likely to face a lot of noise in the House.

  • It may not get any further than that, but she cannot, I don't think now ignore the fact that a significant proportion of the electorate here had voted for a party, which doesn't much care for the y. you, and she's going to have to keep that in the back of her mind, I think, Jenny hill in Berlin.

  • Volcanoes are a fact of life in the Pacific ring of fire along which many of Indonesia's islands lie.

  • So there wasn't too much complaint.

  • When the order came this week to evacuate more than one hundred thousand people from their homes in Bali, because of fears that Mount angle might be about to erupt.

  • Hundreds of tremors had been detected, and there were signs of magma molten rock rising inside the volcano's cone, the signs were worth taking seriously.

  • The last time out.

  • I've gone erupted in nineteen sixty Three more than a thousand people were killed.

  • You might wonder why anyone should want to live, so close to a volcano has to be endangered by it, but there's a complex relationship between life and danger in Bali.

  • It's my colleague Peter Hyatt, a former Jakarta correspondent who was visited Bali, many times before, Bali, became a mass tourism destination, it attracted visitors because of its art, painting, sculpture, jewellery, music, dance, Barney's people spent centuries perfecting the distinctive and intricate creations which underpin their religious, cultural and social lives versions of these art forms, continued to delight.

  • Many of the millions of holiday makers who visit barley, every year, and to her, its most important source of income.

  • How did body produce this distinctive work well, partly because barley itself is distinctive and Ireland that remained very largely Hindu when most of its neighbours, in what is now Indonesia converted to Islam centuries ago, the other islands like Java retain much of their pre Islamic identity, but in Bali, Hinduism is a living, religion, and we've seen that with reports this week of feverish offerings being made in temples across the island.

  • But it's not just a question of religion to produce art artists need time and space.

  • That means they can't spend all their time on the business of just staying alive.

  • If you do nothing but work for or forage for grow or prepare or scrounge or borrow or steal food to put on the table For yourself and the people you love.

  • If you're struggling to Haworth and clothe yourself and your family.

  • If your daily routine.

  • It's work, followed by two little speech, followed by work again.

  • If all that is the case, then you won't have the time, let alone the imaginative space to produce art, which is where mud agam comes in the stuff, which comes out of a volcano makes agricultural soil immensely fertile, at least, after a while, barley's tropical climate with plentiful rain means farmers can get two sometimes three harvests of rice and other crops every year.

  • Contrast that with the hard Scrabble existence of farmers and peasants in so many other parts of the world, the Balinese don't achieve this without effort, of course, but they achieve it with less effort than in many other places, which means they and their families have and had much more leisure for playing and for culture, and also that barley's many Royal families were able to employ large numbers of artists and artisans to beautify their homes and temples many Balinese people venerated Mount a gun, they face it to pray.

  • The most important temple complex on Bali.

  • Put a bit sarky sits high up on its slopes, the lava flows in nineteen sixty three misted by metres and escape food at the time, it's miraculous proof of the temple sacredness Mount a Gong rumbling again suggest to some Balinese that the gods are angry, hence the offerings, the bet With the life and death, that the people of barley, make every day, has now come to the fore again the volcano, which is the spiritual heart of this most spiritual of islands, and is also a key reason for its astonishing fertility is threatening to sweep away many Balinese again in the blink of an eye, the danger of death is the price of life and beauty in Bali, the blessing and the curse of life under the volcano Peter hired, that's it from the world, this week.

  • For now, if you've got any thoughts on what we've done, or what you'd like us to do, please contact us at B.B.C. world service via Facebook or Twitter.

  • And don't forget to join Charles have a land at the same time next week for a look back at what happened in the next seven days.