Hello and welcome to news from the B.B.C. world service coming live from London, this is Owen Bennett Jones, in a moment, we'll hear from Spain, where a big rally has been under way in Barcelona, on the last day of campaigning ahead of the referendum on independence on Sunday and Madrid, says the votes are legal, the Catalan leaders are saying it will go ahead and also in the programme, we'll speak to the thirty one year old leader of Italy's five star movement is he too young to be thought of as a national leader your banging on so not Aldo, but he's in sort of what young people are not the future are dead, the press and the other people who can change our country with their energy and innovation.
There's a stand off in Spain, and it's not clear how it will work out the Catalan regional government is pressing ahead with its preparations for the independence referendum on Sunday at the government in Madrid is pressing ahead with its strenuous efforts to block it.
There's concern, Madrid and some excitement in Barcelona, where a big pro independence rally has been taking place there.
This is what some of the people in Catalonia were saying we want democracy Polly's repression or pressured for Spanish operation, want to stop us from boarding a moment, then we'll return history books, we asking for democracy.
Our correspondent Tom burridge Has been speaking to both sides of this very fundamental disagreement, and let's hear first from the Spanish government spokesman in you go Mendez to Vega, I believed that then get a majority of people who want to be like the ancestors Catalans, Spanish and Europeans, and they know that independence, I've got the means to be cut off of Spain, had to be cut off of you.
Is it right that in a democratic European country or government would send thousands of police officers to another region to stop people voting, it's not a question of stopping people won't think you're not, but that's what you want to do this weekend, or not, in Spain, we bought in Catalonia.
They wore the local elections on it, just like the collections.
According to the law, but what, what they had tried to do, if any legal serve the termination consultation in any European undemocratic country, you have to stick to the cottage to procedures.
What they've done.
It's against the law, the United Nations high Commissioner for human rights has described the actions of the Spanish state.
In recent days, as worrying.
It is the duty of the Governor, not only to take into account what those who want their secession want, but the whole Catalan people, and this is what the Spanish government is taking Kel, this is not in the hands of the government.
It's in the gossip ocean, so we can change the got it.
If that is a consensus in order to change it.
There isn't a consensus in order to change a sponge cut it.
So, this is why the Catalan government goes unilaterally to dance, a tango, you need two and, in this case, the Spanish government was always ready to talk, but they didn't want to dance all you want to do thinks that early, and this is what their Spanish government would not accept if people try and vote on Sunday, what should the police in Catalonia.
Listen, I don't know what the people, I went to doing on Sunday, the referendum, when the pick place, because should people be arrested for trying to, but no listen in Catalunya, in order to hold a referendum, you need head count off procedures, you need to have the ballet, you need to have an administered before going to, and you need to have the port, nothing has been done nothing exists.
So, there would be no bustle tation next Sunday.
And that's the Spanish government spokesman are new Mendez to ve go with that very firm line and Tom burridge has also been catching up with the other side of the argument.
Speaking to the Catalan regional, Carla's pushed her mom and he criticised both the actions of the Spanish government, as you might expect, but also the inaction of the European Union for not allowing people, he says, to express their views at a democratic way.
Look at what is True, is that there is an overwhelming majority of people in Catalonia, who want to vote to decide, but I'm not come West it not like this, she put up with her, yes, but what other option.
Do we have.
We have offered the possibility of negotiating everything, including a referendum, we have waited sent letters asked for meetings, the response has always been no other simply hasn't been a reply not us Buster shimba have a Betsy's thing, however, the will of the cattle and people to decide their future remains, and it is not a crime.
It is not an absurdity up sure of either, but whether you like it or not, you are part of the Spanish state and Spanish law is clear, you cannot do this referendum.
It is illegal, not the skipper.
No, I disagree completely, because the Constitution allows for cattle and people to be consulted is the position of the Spanish government, moral, I do them one hope it's dancing in the lovely, they are following the law, some door ink at the Inn which Article of the Spanish Constitution does it allow for the restriction of freedom of expression in order to arrest young men who have published website showing voting slips, pull up a little bit about that, when you're doing this is dividing further society here in Catalan, we're not lost, it must be radish radish so well, by their very nature, democratic debate create divisions of opinions, as Was the case with Breck's it nice spot divide us is not that there are different opinions, including very different ones.
In this case, what divides us is not something that can't be resolved by the democratic route.
I understand that they don't like it.
They can also consider illegal, but the reality exists that that it's happening in Catalonia is real, it is not an invention, it is palpable.
And it is not going away, it is pretty clear, you will get a majority vote on Sunday, because a lot of people.
I'm going to turn out.
What are you going to do on Monday morning.
I'm going to see how Sunday goes, and once results out, we'll have to take political decisions, there will be an effort for dialogue and mediation for young, but are you going to declare independence from Spain, without the permission of the Spanish state, labelling it, I thought a lot about cattle and law sets out the time in which we're going to declare independence.
If there is a, yes, Ian the timings are the following, love problem after results are officially published, which could be a matter of a few days, they will be a period of forty eight hours to declare independence, but this does not exclude that on the night of the first, who will not make yet another call for us to sit down and talk to resolve this politically.
What is not illegal is that cattle and people And their Willy.
So, to get that would you so a bit of wiggle room as to how this may work out, but that's the version of Carla's pushed him on is the Catalan regional President, let's get an assessment now from Amirah marrow of what might happen.
Former journalist now writing a book on Spanish politics.
First question, will the vote actually happen unimpeded.
I think it will take place somehow, it is not clear where it will be in the electoral College, whether you'd be in hospital in what kind of buildings.
It's going to be taking place, but the impression, and the general impression is that they will be able to vote, somehow, some better, maybe in the streets in the bath, it will happen.
Somehow it will happen, somehow, but what about the people organising it will they end up in prison.
That is most important question paddy's been asked, right now, in Spain, as of Monday and Tuesday, what will happen in this country for clan is at on when they'd a quarter for Toba, they're going to tell you that the precedent public generally at least puts them on will be clear unilaterally independent after that, there are two options.
One, as you say, said, immediate detention after precedent, because he's committing an illegal act according to Madrid or their application of Article one fifty five of the Spanish Constitution, which would take a little bit longer.
The application would actually have to go To the stand that settled the constitutional crisis that we're heading to inch stain will actually happen in the first two weeks up a coper and when people contemplate this truly uncertain situation is that affecting the way they vote, or some people pulling back thinking, I really don't want to go down this road, there's been a pa..
Let's just keep it up for me.
Publication called, is the very interesting pour that shows that a parent, the as that book cover many Madrid have been taking this last two weeks have been counterproductive has been sort of creating more independent people initially approximately forty one per cent of the Catalan population wanted independence, according to this last bottle trump today, it's over.
Sixty per cent of people who would, but yes, on Sundays for a friend.
The numbers are very shaky.
What it's an absolute certainty is that eighty percent of the Catalan population, wants to vote, even if it's no right, but, I mean, if, if this is a pole held in the streets, as you suggest, then it's going to be difficult to argue that it's a properly conducted poll in which everyone knows who's voted, and it's all done right, right and proper absolutely that is part of a terrible problem that we're facing right now in Spain, the declaration of independence and based on of referendum will take place in such strange b. is obviously not a professional way of creating in, they eat, And the other hand, the government in Madrid, will have the problem, whether it is official or not.
On Monday, the second have a Toba the same centre Chuck people with the the sires and the same feelings pickets.
Right now, more than a political issue.
What is happening in my country.
It's a question of emotions and the feelings, they will not disappear, and on Monday, October two around the world, people will understand, probably the Catalan feeling, you know, it's a feeling for independence, and so on.
And there are many movements like that around the world.
Tell us about the emotions in in Madrid to they want unity, what are they thinking absolutely people in in Madrid whistle, which is where I am now in the rest of the country are outraged grammar angry in Somerset, they feel that they're Catalonia has no right to decide to go, and they want to stop that happening.
And there are backing the government in all the messes that there, take it, because they feel that the Catalans are doing something that is against the law.
So that was Anna, a Spanish journalists, just trying to work out how this might work out over the next few days.
This vote in Catalonia comes just after Monday's referendum in the Kurdish autonomous region in northern Iraq, and that produced an overwhelming vote in favour of independence.
There, but, given how much self determination occurs in Iraq already have.
The question does Arise.
Why is independent, so important and, as part of music, Director of this week, I ask that question, why it's a seed and put it to, amongst others, I am Sammy remand the Washington representative of the Kurdish regional government, we have had other identities imposed on us.
When you look back at Kurdish history, as I'm sure you know cut a stone has been divided between Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria.
There have been moves in each of those countries, over time, to deny our language deny our culture deny our history in Iraq, we have suffered chemical weapons we have suffered repeated acts of genocide, including currents genocide under Isis against the C.D.s and the Christians, so for us, we feel that everything that we represent, has been denied and it is time for us to choose our own destiny.
We believe that we will have more protection internationally and domestically.
If we are a sovereign state.
So that's the Kurdish point of view, I've been hearing about the Catalans are news, our extra this week, just asking the question, why so many referendums on this, what is self determination, does it have to be independence.
There are lots of issues, legal, moral, political news and coming up a Muse.
Why do French people turn against their President's quite so quickly when someone is elected something happens in France, and they still think he's looking.
So what do you do.
After he's been elected.
Instead, he Tried to cut his head off.
The view of the singer, Carla Bruni, whose husband nickel are so cosy it was in the Elise a Palace experiencing some of this now, then the headlines.
United States is to withdraw most of its Embassy staff from Cuba and his warning Americans, not to visit the island in response to mysterious Sonic attacks on its diplomats are Catalans are gathering in Barcelona for the final mass rally before Sunday's referendum on independence from Spain, the authorities in Madrid are assisting the vote won't take place and the un ascending war crimes investigators to Yemen to examine abuses in there, you're listening to Italy, he must hold a general election.
By spring next year, and one of the main party leaders will be a thirty one year old Luigi demise, the current Deputy speaker of Italy's lower House, he's been chosen to take the populace five star movement into the vote are founded in two thousand and nine, the voters running, close to the governing democratic party in the polls and James Reynolds has gone to see the movement's new leader, don Luigi he man, your friend that me land of it, Luigi de Meyer steps onto the stage to accept his movements nomination as candidate for Prime Minister.
Five years ago, he was a University drop out working, I her web start up.
Now the thirty one year old swans to convince Italy, that he is ready to lead the entire country.
I met him at his parliamentary Office in Rome, he is strikingly polite and well dressed on a side table.
There's a framed copy of the financial times.
Front page, featuring his photo assigned, that being the centre of international attention is still a novelty.
Some countries have a minimum age for leadership, for example, the United States has a minimum of thirty five of being President, you're thirty one, do you have enough experience to lead a major country you joining on sonal to Aldo, but he's in debt.
It's sort of what young people are not the future are dead, the precedent, the other people who can change our country with their energy and innovation.
When I went to your Parliament in Westminster, I found that senior officials were maximum fifty year storm which was normal, they contrast, there will be considered extremely young in Italy.
That's what we also have to change for the end of the unlikely, but one of Italy's over fifties shows no desire to step aside five stars, but they did love is a professional comedian and amateur singer, he remains the movements loudest voice, a point I put to Luigi dimeo you've been chosen as the leader of the five star movements, but the found that pick it in, though, is still the dominant figure will you be taking instructions from him, but then I checked my that there piggley lus advice will always be welcome, but I've always said that This is the movement, which is based on the actions of the members themselves.
And that will continue the decisions they take will be show, with all of the movement.
And, above all, with citizens who wish to join our project.
What I'm offered, but you were still brought it in recent years.
In Europe, there has been a wave of populous parties and also a nationalist parties five star identify with those other movements in Europe under your door, a bend so idle, when I think of which political model to follow.
I think of the country in northern Europe, which are spending money on health and environ.
I don't look to follow the emerging extreme left wing or the extreme right wing parties in Europe means that you've talked about renegotiating Italy's role within the European Union, and, if possible, at the end, having a referendum on the, would you like to go one step further and take Italy, out of the European Union, like Britain, but it'll do not on my they first fault, we've never said that we wanted to leave the European Union.
We've always said that we want to remain inside the European Union and reform, it from with Emily, whatever it comes out like that.
So how unusual is it for Italy to have such a young contender your van.
You're seen Sina teaches political history at Rome's Luis University, it is absolutely stunning.
But if you look at it, Italian history.
In The last twenty five years, this can be very easily me you tell s been consuming political class and nowadays, you need Sally turn experience is more of a liability than a resort, the fact that he doesn't have an experience for many Italians, because this means, he's not painted with corruption, or whatever.
He did a voice at come back, Luigi de Myo has now begun his efforts to win over the country, in the next few months.
In the run up to the election, he'll try to make himself five star's main voice a tricky ambition when the movement's founder and in how singer, but they're good still reaches a larger audience.
And that was Italy correspondent James Reynolds doing reporting, not the singer, a man who can probably be described as the world's leading technology entrepreneur musk wants to send some people to Mars in just seven years, time.
So was that publicity chasing talk all a real possibility.
JasonDavies is the space news reporter with the planetary society, how impressed to see by this, I'm always astonished when he releases a new set of plans.
I think they're very ambitious, very bold and exciting.
I always take it with a little grain of salt, because his track record for these types of things usually shows that the reality of the concept, doesn't always match up with the initial time winds and funding promise.
That's right, cos because Massa who are rather well resourced, but they Think they can do it in a twenty, thirty this continues to be the big question is working on its own effort, using traditional methods, but space x., on the other hand, there doing this, a privately in this continues to be the big debate in the space Community private rockets for us as government owned rackets and so you have space sex really kind of any on a more ambitious proposal here, this is an involved version of what they present last year, so they've tweaked it slightly, so how different is it on or space exes proposal is, it is it different technology, what he's essentially proposing is a giant re usable rocket and this rocket would be on the order of the Saturn five moon rocket that took SA astronauts to the moon.
Back in the sixties SA is working on another concept or related concept with a giant rocket copper space launch system, so both space.
Now, so you have this idea of using a giant rocket hot, a lot of things.
After pointing at one time.
And that's what you need to do when you've gone to the moon, or Mars, the difference here is that space ex's really focused and re usable rockets.
So you, we've already seen that they're re using their Falcon nine rocket.
They're watching something in orbit, and they fly it back to the earliest I ended up rate, so they can actually re use it, whereas now, Sir, He's still using the traditional method of just ditching the rocket in the ocean when it wants something to orbit in space, ex, thinks they can really get a lot of car savings out of that, by capturing the rocket and then essentially reusing it like a jet a same same musk is talking about using this technology to facilitate travel on earth.
So in his presentation that he gave kind of almost as a throw away at the end of the presentation he showed this short video of a flight of this same rocket system, leaving.
New York and arriving in Shanghai in about twenty nine minutes around a half hour, I believe, was the time estimate.
They cave, no serious proposals have ever come out on something like that, from a company that could actually maybe pulled off from a technological standpoint, nothing in the concept looked like it would be impossible pour voir thumb.
It's essentially the same thing that they want to do for their Mars missions, the main hurdle, I would say they have to clear his regular Tory they showed in the animation, the rock at watching with the Manhattan skyline.
In the background and landing with the Shanghai Scout in the background, I imagine that will take some convincing her to make that a reality.
There is also the risks involved.
You on musk has been very open in saying this is, this is all going to be very dangerous.
People might Die going to Mars.
You know, if I'm going to Mars.
I expect there to be a lot of risk involved in that, and the other hand, if I'm flying from York to Shanghai, I would ideally like to die.
So I think that's going to be interesting to watch out that risk equation plays out as they develop this and from the planetary society that was Jason, Davies, you're listening to a broadcast additional news, our available twice each day, straight after the live edition of the programme, and if you are enjoying that, then why not take a look at other podcast from B.B.C. world service, the documentary brings to life stories and investigations from across the globe.
We've got witness first hand accounts from important moments in history, in a moment, a harrowing account of abuse fazed by revengers fleeing, but first business and the Indian authorities say they have given the Tata motors company, a contract to produce ten thousand electric cars for government use, I asked to be missus Charles Havel and just how big the contract.
This a very big contract.
Indeed, and he's going to start immediately.
The first batch of five hundred or so cars is supposed to be handed over in November interesting because tutta doesn't actually hasn't entered the electric car market.
So far, its Chief Indian rival Mahindra motors does already produce electric cars, was in the bidding process, but was defeated us was Nissan of Japan sounds unbelievably Quick, what's the idea, just pollution, basically pollution reduction.
I mean, India is an extraordinarily polluted country, one point two billion people, of course, one estimate, I've seen is that all about one point, two million deaths per year in India are being attributed to pollution listeners may recall that the capital Delhi has tried other measures to combat pollution, for instance, letting cars in o'Neill alternate days of the month that has only had patches success.
And one of the pitfalls is that government officials and V.I.P.s were exempt.
This, if you like, he's trying to get the government to set an example, because it is the government that has taken delivery of these cars, and it would, they will be for government purposes, these ten thousand cars, the first five hundred of which are meant to be on line.
In November, I was seeing that they've got a target of all new vehicles to be electric by twenty, thirty, and I guess we say, all new vehicles that become sort of doable.
I mean, other countries, of course, including the United Kingdom, have made similar aims.
I think the idea is that only electrical hybrid cars should be on the market.
In other words, new ones by twenty, thirty by twenty twenty in three years' time, it wants about six million of these cars to be sold, some would say, this is very ambitions.
Indeed, but, I mean, India has been trying to hold fast to International agreements on pollution and one interesting thing was that in June after President trump of the United States, for swore the Paris agreement on human right, I beg your pardon on environmental protection and climate change, the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that for us, it's an Article of faith that this means of preserving the planet should be respected difficulty with this is, I imagine there's a lot of infrastructure involve cause for these cars to work, as I understand it, you need charging stations right all over the place.
I mean, anywhere, that electric cars are going to make any headway.
You do need this.
I don't know what the figures are in India, but I do know that the lack of charging stations has dissuaded certain other players from entering the Indian market.
One is, Mercedes, another is tessler them, the world leader in electronic or automobiles.
So I think, obviously, the country, often finds itself lacking in for structural terms, people have complained today that the tragedy of in Mumbai, where, by a Stampede on a railway bridge resulted a number of deaths that's happening at the same time as the country, trying to build the bullet train.
Here again, you know, the ambition is there, but can it deliver on the infrastructure, soon enough, we'll see, and that was, have a look, you're listening to the head of the un migration Agency has warned of increase in cases of sexual Violence among the Henge or refugees fleeing me over the past month.
Doctors have treated dozens of women who experience violent sexual assaults and August.
And they say, really those numbers are only a small proportion of the actual cases.
More than half a million refugees in their living in southern Bangladesh, where there has been reporting and a warning that this report contains some really very disturbing and shocking descriptions of abuse, just by a stream on the bunged at this side of the border with me unmarked on the other side of the stream is a refugee camp, but I can't actually go there, because it's right up on the border fence in what is technically no Mansell the people living there.
I row hinges, who've recently arrived from the Armagh.
And I'm here to meet a young woman went toward has the most distressing story.
What happened to her, I wouldn't enjoy it in my London whatever love, but not the end had to be sitting by some trees, where she begins to tell me how a village inside me.
And I was attacked one night by the Burmese army and a group of recount.
But this pts, she prettier gunshot and shout, so she came out to investigate, and found that they were surrounded, this is what happened next at the up when I came up with my children to try and escape to the kind men pinned my arms to my side, this started raping Me after one finished another wanted his place.
And then I thought I was, I'm not, they said that, I eventually, when they let her go.
She picked up her children and started running what happened next defies description.
Why find there was this mash might do here, or a boy from my arms and threw him inside a burning House is up on that.
I have got a mother melody, there was nothing, she could do to save him for the next three days, she Trek through the mountains and jungles till she crossed into bung a dish, the medical teams at the camp treated her, but the trauma of what she went through is never too far away.
Do I know what I can't find my husband, my parents, my other children.
Everyone I know, and I'm glad there were none of my play about either not there, there my lovely the hospitals and Cox Bazaar are overflowing with strangers.
Many of them carrying injuries.
Others malnourished and dehydrated, but increasingly doctors say they were coming across cases of sexual assault on women, children, even Patrick do, he can he's Chief emergency doctor for the un migration Agency, there have been reports, all of the injuries and second in the race, we see in all emergency sittings that have been treated in our clinics, but at the same time, we don't want to create stigmatise Asian and discrimination from the Community or identification of those people, So we wouldn't recommend putting in a separate area and making separate arrangements, but rather, working with the Community, a great save spaces and ensure that they are getting the care and support, we've been told that there are many, many cases of rape and sexual abuse, but as you walk around the camps that quite difficult to find people willing to talk about it.
This is a deeply conservative society, where the issue of sexual abuse of a sword carries with it a massive stigma inside a small dent in one of the largest refugee camps.
They find another young women to children are asleep on the dusty floor.
Well, a baby swings from a makeshift crib she shows me a photograph of her husband, he was the village Claire that not prevented from being taken away with all the other men, but the army descended on the village.
And then I thought, I made it a few soldiers scheme in one of them entered the House, the others stood on guard, say, I don't know about wheeler and she says, the soldier raped her, it's been ten for twenty years since I was assaulted.
I'm still bleeding her husband, the cleric is missing deeply traumatised she hasn't left a tent or family Member Prince or medicine or Woking the manager, how can I did anyone about what happened to me.
It is a matter of shame.
It's bedded today, they're Dead anyway, the Myanmar authorities have denied all allegations of sexual assault, but they say they are willing to investigate individual, but how can you do that when the victims and the evidence is over here.
That report from the B.B.C.'s Saint joy much Washington has decided to withdraw about.
Sixty per cent of its Embassy staff from Cuba, it's warned Americans against visiting the island.
All this after at least twenty one diplomats were subjected to apparent Sonic attacks that left them with symptoms, including hearing loss, dizziness, nausea, now have have strongly denied any involvement in these mystery assaults, and he's actually asked the U.S. to co-operate with its investigation.
This was the U.S. Secretary of state Rex Tennyson, talking about the withdrawal of non emergency personnel from the U.S Embassy in Havana, we have an under a valuation.
It's a very serious issue with respect to the harm that certain individuals have suffered.
We brought some of those people home, it's under review, and that was Rex tell us, and the B.B.C.'s Barbara Platt usher is in Washington, d. c. covering this, and I asked whether the U.S is actually blamed the Cuban government for this.
It's actually not blaming anyone quite peculiar, really, this has been going on since I think the first symptoms were reported in December twenty sixteen, and I wanted to be when it became apparent that there was a pattern to them.
There was an investigation Launched, which has been run by the F.B.I. and the Cubans have been co-operating helping out with it, and they still have not determine who the guilty party could be, in fact, it was they didn't know at first, whether it was an attack, the Americans were thinking that, you know, they couldn't really say, and they call it an incident for quite a long time.
Now, they're saying that they do believe it is a tax, but they're not accusing the Cubans, the Cubans have denied any role in it.
So it's very quite mysterious about who might be doing this, they assist in your state Department official it was talking about this said to us that they haven't ruled anything out, of course, they couldn't since they don't know which direction to go, but they also haven't ruled out a possible third party who might be have have conducted these attacks.
So that the one thing that my did say was he very pointedly reminded the Cuban government that it does have the responsibility to protect, diplomats that on its soil, how serious are the symptoms while they vary.
They certainly are quite a lot of different ones.
They if they've got in the last, dizziness, headache, the cognitive issues is how the state Department refers to some of the symptoms, which, which I think probably means something, let mild brain trauma or something like that, which sounds quite serious, so they range in Seriousness and in the different types, which is one reason, I think, why it took a while to figure out that there was something going on here.
That affected quite a number of people, so there with the some of the most affected people were taken out initially to Miami or to the United States because they needed quite serious treatment.
That was the best place, they could be treated.
So it's big, it's evolved into quite a serious bilateral issue, and as quite measured response, but how does that fit in with the trump attitude to Cuba.
More generally, do we know what he thinks about Cuba.
We certainly know what he thinks about Cuba, because he's rolled back.
President Obama's state, he came in, saying that it was a one sided deal, which is what he says about many agreements that President Obama has has made, and that he wanted to, he said that he was a rigger recalling at or ending it, he isn't exactly he's, he's rolled that certain measures or deal with trade and travel, but he hasn't reversed the deal.
Nevertheless, he made a big splash about it when he said it, and that all that that meant that the whole attitude, the whole kind of feeling of wanting to go out and go out as far as you can to make this thing work was pulled back, plus, of course, there were some restrictions reinstated.
So this is another blow to that Kind of day time for President Obama was putting in the Cubans have said that it's a hasty decision.
This decision to downsize the Embassy, and then it will further affect relations, right.
That's all I'd seen as a senior official in the in the in the foreign Ministry and that was Barbara let usher French art historians have been doing tests on a sketch of someone in the same pose as Mona Lisa.
They've been working on a charcoal drawing or cartoon of a nude woman that they think may have been a sketch for Leonardo da Vinci his masterpiece, and they've been trying to work out who exactly Druid a Professor Martin Kemp is an art historian and expert on Leonardo da Vinci.
He studied this drawing.
What did he make of it.
Look at it in change.
I think most learn artery scholars had not been to change c. castle.
South of Paris, same, so it's racecourse, and I looked at it very carefully us colleague, specialist in technical examination and looking at it closely, you could see, first of all, it's immensely high quality, and, secondly, you can see that one of the artists involved in making it is left handed, I'm glow nada is left handed and his immediate circle and pupils.
No one seems to have been left handed, you can tell that from how halva and moves across the surface was a left Hander mousse there hand, particularly, I'm not some parallel lines in a very different just enjoy orientation right hand, what's lives a smudge on the page.
No, if you imagine you're trying to do a series of parallel lines diagonally, which is how you created shading or background, a right hander goes from top right to bottom left sure natural movement.
That's my alarm moons of the left hander does it top left bottom right, so this, you seen this very quick shading, and it's going in that left handed direction, then it's a very good pointer to it doing Barlow nada, I suppose.
The other question is whether there's any doubt in your mind, that this is, Mona Lisa disrobed, Oh, it's not her no.
Well, it's, it's the same pose, but the facial tribe is distinctly different, it's not transcribe directly from MontLisa, it's somewhat larger was bigger and slightly larger, it's, it's using the Mona Lisa pose, but it's not her with no clothes on, as it were, right.
So what's the importance of this drawing or cartoon.
It's very interesting, because it's a very sexualised image, the idea of that a woman would sit in a chair, naked, certainly from the waist upwards in smile act Stuart was as provocative the Manet Olympia orsino that which caused a sensation on the nineteenth century, it's pictorial bad manners.
How something as explicitly communicative that as a nude woman, you had Venus's, yeah, you had nude Images of naked goddesses and mince in the Renaissance, but to present somebody who's sitting there as if a real woman.
I knew and smiling, and topless is very daring that was Professor Martin Kemp, just a moment to advise you once again of the b. b. c. news, our podcast twice each day goes up, and if you ever miss an edition of the programme.
Want to know what's going on around the world, this very easy way to, you know, to get just a briefing with a network of correspondents all over the place to just get a briefing of what's happening in the world.
Each day, twice, is Dave that that's the B.B.C. news, our podcast a reminder of our menus just now Catalans have gathered in Barcelona for the final mass rally before Sunday's referendum on independence from Spain.
The Spanish journalist Anna um Aero told this programme that many people in the capital, Madrid are outraged at their plans to go ahead with the vote are angry in summer are sad, because they feel that Catalonia, no right to decide to go, and they want to stop that happening.
And there are backing the government in all the messes that there, take it, because they feel that the Catalans are doing something that is against the law.
Other headlines, the U.S is to withdraw most of its Embassy staff from Cuba, and he's warning, Americans, not to visit the island in response to mysterious Sonic attacks on its diplomats and the un is to send war crimes investigators to Yemen to examine abuses committed in the country's civil war, you're listening to news, our four months after winning the French presidential election, Emmanuel macro is facing protests on the streets criticism in the papers and popularity ratings have dipped more sharply even than the his recent predecessors, but it's not the French first French leader to suffer a rapid slide in approval, Jacques Chirac, Nicolas Sarkozy and Francois all were all more popular out of Office than in Lucy Williamson has been looking at why the French so often disapprove of their President, it's September the leaves are starting to fall along the Champs Elysee Emmanuel and that car is rolling out his sweeping campaign of reforms and bite on cue protesters of appearing in the streets, but maybe my McCall shouldn't worry too much, it's just the way things are here me leg.
I was her friend and me, Annie sits in there, they're all at her very own and for progress.
So I think he's just always expect the guard Oleg like someone superstrong expect isms are too high, and then short amount of time.
We, or is disappointed.
We're meeting on this, because when we have we, Hey, do we Mister, yes, of course, where evidence, it away.
All right, reforming or studying every President, it seems ends up in the doghouse, at least until he leaves Office against micron surfed to victory on a campaign of hope and renewal, but his popularity has plummeted since may more sharply even than that of his predecessor, Francois lawned and he ended up with the lowest approval ratings in modern French history.
Aren't just behave like a normal people done clamped and no more men at the head of the nation.
They want somebody different, they what their King Philippe lab is a political commentator, close to Michael, he says that now, one support by restoring a sense of grandeur to the Presidency, but that the French have a troubled relationship with power, they are happy that Michael restored a certain pristine, he knew that you had to re invent the costume of the uniform, Oh, King, but they criticise him, because it's their nature, because the French ate everyone was in power, I gave him the crew would like to hear part of the problem, perhaps, is that, as mackerel himself once said, the French part leave regret killing off their kings or that, as others believe they are driven to repeat the experience with every leader who looks a little bit like one.
The French have and storer current relationship with the President, which is quite strange, since they made the revolution, and they kill the King, one woman who's felt France's love hate relationship with power, first hand, he's the singer Carla Bruni, wife of the former French President Nicolas Sarkozy when someone is elected Something happens in France, and they still think he's King.
So what do you do.
After he's been elected.
Instead, he tried to cut his head off.
And that's, I mean, it's, it's time.
You know, it does depend on who's to President, and what he's doing.
Is it a good President, like nightmares was a z. and the deer Orca President, like some other can be began, you're going, what do you know, the guy.
I'm not going to happen, it probably didn't help that the man who invented the modern French Presidency after world war, two positioned himself above the daily grind of politics, aloof regal the voice of France.
Well, but then general Charles the Gaul was almost seventy when he took Office and widely seen as a war hero, most politicians here, aren't Emmanuel McCall is thirty nine and a former banker, but he's also styled himself as a similarly duper teary and kind of leader.
So how is he seen by the next generation of voters at the eco do per loo West of Paris, teacher, Caroline, though, is leading a discussion about the role of the French President, what does he do.
They're a nap.
We seek the verdict.
He does politics, we hip make speeches on epilogue sometimes he calls, England, to ask for extra troops Roger the life of a French President, in all its many in glory's there.
Now, the white House has just announced in the last fifteen minutes or So that the health and human resources Secretary Tom price has resigned.
I just been joined by Laura Baker, who's been straight onto this is he gone well, he need twenty four flights on private planes in just four months, at a cost of three hundred thousand dollars to the tax payer Mister trump President trump is said to have been furious with what he called the optics of the situation.
Now, my price has written a personal cheque for just over fifty says in dollars, but his seats on the plane, but the details that came out, he mean he's several of those trip city made were to locations where he wants property, for instance, so when it doesn't look good for Mister trump he has decided well either.
He's put pressure on him to resign or certainly this drip drip drip feed of information has become a distraction to the white House my price has offered his resignation and Mister trump has accepted.
But here we are another Friday night here in Washington, and yet another resignation, and I mean a complete contradiction really of trump's message in terms of the base and his base.
When it comes to his beef.
He told them that he would drain the swamp.
Well, he has members of his own cabinet taking private seats on planes and flying around, even short journeys from Washington to Philadelphia.
For instance, when he says the optics, don't look good, he is meaning to his Base.
And then, there has been a lot of distraction.
On this issue, when he's trying to get across tax reform, he had another go at health reform, which would have included his health Secretary Tom price, all of that, with the health Secretary, he's taken these fights.
So yes, here we are at another resignation.
We've had Steve Bannon Wayne's previous Anthony Scarab Meucci it's John Spicer serious senior members of the cabinet all day and members of the white House and know their senior Member of the cabinet gone, I will be just a couple of others quaking line seats, cos I've been taking this flights turn.
I think if you look at Scott create the environmental protection Agency, the President is also not happy with that private travel that he's taken.
So there are a couple of others who are under investigation for the use of private planes.
O.K., thank you very much indeed.
That was Laura Becca just bring us up to date with that breaking news coming out of Washington, white s. announcing, just in the last fifteen minutes or so that the health and human resources Secretary Tom price has resigned over this issue of private jets seats being his flight's being used for government business.